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A Closer Look at CONGENITAL SYPHILIS

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CONGENITAL SYPHILIS

Medically Reviewed by:

Name: Ezire Lilian Chinwe

Description: A highly motivated and licensed biomedical scientist with over 7 years of experience, dedicated to advancing healthcare through innovative research and analysis. Expertise includes genetics, microbiology, and immunology with a commitment to staying at the forefront of scientific advancements.

Link: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lilian-ezire-3ba4b2215/

Table of Contents

A Closer Look at CONGENITAL SYPHILIS: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Congenital syphilis is a serious and often overlooked health issue that affects newborns. This article delves into the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease, shedding light on a topic that deserves greater attention.

Congenital syphilis occurs when a pregnant woman with untreated or inadequately treated syphilis passes the infection to her baby. The consequences can be devastating, leading to premature birth, stillbirth, or a range of physical and neurological problems in the newborn. Recognizing the symptoms of congenital syphilis is crucial for early diagnosis and treatment.

Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Signs may include rash, fever, swelling, bone deformities, and failure to thrive. However, these symptoms can be mistaken for other conditions, making it all the more important for healthcare providers to be vigilant and conduct thorough testing. Thankfully, congenital syphilis is preventable and treatable.

Timely prenatal care, including testing and treatment for syphilis during pregnancy, can greatly reduce the risk of transmission to the baby. If diagnosed early, antibiotics can effectively treat the infection in both the mother and the baby. By raising awareness and understanding of congenital syphilis, we can help protect the health and wellbeing of future generations.

What is Congenital Syphilis?

Congenital syphilis is a medical condition that arises when a pregnant woman carrying the syphilis infection inadvertently passes it on to her child during pregnancy or childbirth. This condition can lead to various health complications in the newborn, making it a matter of significant concern.

Causes and Transmission of Congenital Syphilis

To comprehend the causes and transmission of congenital syphilis is to grasp a crucial aspect of this devastating condition. In this section, we will dive deeper into the intricacies of how this disease originates and spreads from infected mothers to their unborn children.

Causes of Congenital Syphilis

Congenital syphilis arises exclusively due to the transmission of the syphilis bacterium, Treponema pallidum, from an infected mother to her developing baby during pregnancy or childbirth. Understanding the causes is fundamental to addressing and preventing this condition effectively.

Here’s a more detailed exploration of the causes:

Maternal Infection: The root cause of congenital syphilis is the presence of syphilis in the pregnant mother. It’s imperative to note that this infection can remain asymptomatic or exhibit mild symptoms in the mother, making it even more challenging to detect.

Transplacental Transmission: During pregnancy, if the mother is infected with syphilis, the bacterium can cross the placental barrier, reaching the developing fetus through the shared bloodstream. This is how the syphilis bacterium directly infects the unborn child.

The Timing of Transmission

The timing of syphilis transmission is critical to understanding how it can affect the developing baby. It is primarily during the later stages of pregnancy, particularly during the last trimester, that the risk of transmission is highest. However, it’s important to note that transmission can occur at any point during pregnancy or even during childbirth.

Asymptomatic Mothers

A key challenge in addressing congenital syphilis is the potential for mothers to remain asymptomatic or exhibit symptoms that go unnoticed. This means that even if a pregnant woman does not display overt signs of syphilis, she can still transmit the infection to her child. Routine prenatal screening is therefore crucial in identifying cases early and taking prompt action.

Impact of Maternal Treatment

Maternal treatment plays a pivotal role in preventing congenital syphilis. Infected pregnant women who receive appropriate and timely treatment with antibiotics, especially penicillin, can significantly reduce the risk of transmission to their babies. Hence, maternal treatment is not only essential for the mother’s well-being but also for the protection of the unborn child.

The Complexity of Diagnosis

Diagnosing congenital syphilis can be challenging due to its often asymptomatic nature in both mothers and newborns. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of serologic tests to detect syphilis antibodies and the examination of bodily fluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), to confirm central nervous system involvement. These diagnostic tools are instrumental in identifying congenital syphilis in newborns born to mothers with syphilis.

Early Detection, Prevention, and Timely Treatment

To combat congenital syphilis effectively, early detection and timely treatment are critical. It is also essential to engage in prevention strategies, including prenatal screening and maternal treatment. By doing so, we can not only identify and treat cases promptly but also work towards reducing the overall incidence of this condition.

Symptoms, Diagnosis, and TreatmentSymptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Symptoms of Congenital Syphilis

Congenital syphilis can manifest in various ways, and the symptoms may present differently from one infant to another. It’s important to recognize that some infants may not display noticeable symptoms at birth. However, the absence of visible symptoms does not rule out the possibility of congenital syphilis. Comprehensive medical evaluation and testing are essential for all infants born to mothers with syphilis.

1. Skin Lesions

One of the most common and recognizable symptoms of congenital syphilis is the presence of skin lesions. These skin abnormalities can vary in appearance and location and may include:

Maculopapular Rash: This rash typically consists of small, reddish-brown spots that can appear on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. The rash can also extend to other parts of the body.

Bullous Lesions: Some infants may develop larger, fluid-filled blisters or bullae on their skin. These can be mistaken for other dermatological conditions.

Mucous Patches: In some cases, syphilis can cause mucous patches, which are white, ulcerated lesions that appear in the mouth, nasal passages, or genital areas.

2. Fever

Infants with congenital syphilis may develop an unexplained fever. This fever can be persistent and is often accompanied by other symptoms, such as irritability and poor feeding. These non-specific signs can make it challenging to differentiate from other common childhood illnesses.

3. Organ Involvement

Congenital syphilis can affect various organ systems, leading to a range of complications. Some of the potential organ-specific symptoms include:

Hepatosplenomegaly: This term refers to the enlargement of the liver and spleen. Infants with congenital syphilis may exhibit a swollen abdomen due to the enlargement of these organs.

Bone Abnormalities: The disease can lead to bone abnormalities in affected infants, including changes in the structure of the long bones.

Neurological Issues: In more severe cases, congenital syphilis can lead to neurosyphilis, a form of the disease that affects the central nervous system. Symptoms may include developmental delays, paralysis, and seizures.

4. Hutchinson’s Teeth

Dental abnormalities, known as Hutchinson’s teeth, are characteristic of congenital syphilis. These teeth appear notched and peg-shaped, and their formation can be disrupted by the infection. Dental issues can vary in severity, and careful dental examination is often necessary.

5. Deafness

Hearing loss is another potential consequence of congenital syphilis. Infants born with the infection may develop hearing problems, which can range from mild to profound deafness. Early identification and intervention for hearing issues are crucial to support affected infants in their development.

6. Systemic Symptoms

Congenital syphilis can lead to a broad range of systemic symptoms, including:

Irritability: Infants with congenital syphilis may exhibit irritability, which can be attributed to discomfort caused by various symptoms.

Failure to Thrive: Poor weight gain and growth delays are common issues for infants affected by congenital syphilis.

Fever of Unknown Origin: The unexplained fever mentioned earlier can contribute to the overall discomfort experienced by the infant.

7. Ocular Abnormalities

In some instances, congenital syphilis can cause ocular issues, including interstitial keratitis and uveitis, which can affect the eyes. Early ophthalmological evaluation is recommended to detect and manage these symptoms.

Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Complications of Congenital Syphilis

Complications of congenital syphilis are far-reaching and can lead to severe, long-term health issues in affected infants. In this section, we will delve deeper into these complications to provide a comprehensive understanding of their impact.

Developmental Delays

Infants born with congenital syphilis are at risk of experiencing developmental delays. This includes delays in reaching developmental milestones such as sitting up, crawling, and walking. These delays can have a profound impact on a child’s cognitive and physical development, potentially affecting their quality of life.

Organ Damage

Congenital syphilis can lead to significant organ damage, particularly affecting the liver and spleen. This damage may result in lifelong health issues, including liver and spleen dysfunction. These vital organs play a crucial role in various bodily functions, making organ damage a significant concern in infants with congenital syphilis.

Central Nervous System Involvement

In some cases, congenital syphilis can lead to neurosyphilis, a form of the disease that affects the central nervous system. This involvement can result in a range of neurological issues, including:

Seizures: Infants with neurosyphilis may experience seizures, which can be distressing for both the child and their caregivers.

Developmental Disabilities: The impact on the central nervous system can lead to developmental disabilities, affecting a child’s ability to learn, communicate, and interact with their environment.

Learning Difficulties: Children with central nervous system involvement may face learning difficulties, which can persist into adulthood.

Dental Abnormalities (Hutchinson’s Teeth)

Hutchinson’s teeth are a distinctive sign of congenital syphilis. These teeth have a notched and peg-shaped appearance, making them visually unique. Unfortunately, these dental abnormalities can lead to various issues, including difficulty with chewing and maintaining proper oral hygiene.

Hearing Loss

One of the severe complications of congenital syphilis is hearing loss. This can have long-term consequences, affecting a child’s speech and language development. Early diagnosis and intervention are crucial in managing hearing loss in infants with congenital syphilis.

Bone Abnormalities

Congenital syphilis can also result in bone abnormalities. These abnormalities can manifest as bone pain and physical deformities, potentially requiring surgical interventions to correct. The extent of bone involvement can vary, but it remains a significant concern for affected infants.

Visual Impairment

While not as common as other complications, congenital syphilis can lead to visual impairments. This can range from mild visual disturbances to more severe issues that impact a child’s overall vision. Timely eye examinations and interventions are necessary to manage these complications effectively.

Cognitive and Behavioral Issues

The impact of congenital syphilis can extend to cognitive and behavioral issues as the child grows older. These issues may manifest as difficulty in focusing, impulsivity, and social challenges. Early intervention and support services are vital to help affected children reach their full potential.

Diagnosis of Congenital Syphilis

Diagnosing congenital syphilis is a complex process that involves various medical examinations and tests to ensure accurate identification of the disease. In this section, we will delve into the diagnostic methods and considerations for congenital syphilis.

Serologic Tests

Serologic tests play a fundamental role in diagnosing congenital syphilis. These blood tests are designed to detect the presence of syphilis antibodies in both the mother and the newborn. Let’s explore these tests in more detail:

1. Nontreponemal Tests (VDRL and RPR):

VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) and RPR (Rapid Plasma Reagin) tests are commonly employed as initial screening tools. They detect antibodies produced by the body in response to the syphilis bacterium. These tests are relatively easy to perform and provide results promptly.

Interpretation: A nonreactive or negative result suggests the absence of syphilis. However, it’s important to note that these tests might produce false-positive results in some cases, requiring further confirmation.

Follow-up: If the initial nontreponemal test results are reactive or positive, confirmatory tests are necessary to determine whether the infection is syphilis or if it resulted from other causes.

2. Treponemal Tests (FTA-ABS and TP-PA):

FTA-ABS (Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absorption) and TP-PA (Treponema pallidum Particle Agglutination Assay) tests are employed to confirm the diagnosis after a positive nontreponemal test. These tests specifically detect antibodies produced against the syphilis bacterium, Treponema pallidum.

Interpretation: A positive result on a treponemal test indicates the presence of syphilis infection. However, a positive treponemal test can remain positive for life, even after the infection is treated.

3. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Analysis:

In cases where there is suspicion of neurosyphilis, a condition where the central nervous system is affected, it is essential to analyze the cerebrospinal fluid. Neurosyphilis can lead to serious neurological issues and developmental delays.

Indications: This test is performed when there are signs or symptoms that suggest neurosyphilis, such as developmental delays, seizures, or abnormal neurological findings.

Procedure: A lumbar puncture, commonly referred to as a spinal tap, is performed to collect cerebrospinal fluid. This fluid is then analyzed to detect the presence of the syphilis bacterium and to assess any abnormalities.

Interpretation: A positive CSF test suggests syphilis infection in the central nervous system, which requires specific treatment.

Diagnostic Challenges

It’s crucial to acknowledge that diagnosing congenital syphilis can be challenging due to several factors:

Asymptomatic Cases: In some instances, infants born with congenital syphilis may not exhibit visible symptoms at birth, making it even more critical to rely on diagnostic tests.

Maternal Treatment: If the mother received adequate treatment during pregnancy, it might reduce the risk of transmission. However, testing is still necessary to confirm the status of both the mother and the newborn.

Diagnostic Window: The timing of testing can significantly impact results. Testing too early may lead to false-negative results because the newborn has not yet developed detectable antibodies.

Importance of Early Diagnosis

Early diagnosis of congenital syphilis is of paramount importance. Prompt identification and confirmation of the disease allow for immediate medical intervention, which significantly improves the prognosis for affected infants. Early treatment can help prevent the development of severe complications, including neurological issues and organ damage.

Prevention of Congenital Syphilis

Prevention is the cornerstone in the battle against congenital syphilis. The impact of this disease on infants can be devastating, but through a combination of prenatal care, education, and public health efforts, it can be effectively prevented. Let’s delve deeper into the strategies and measures employed to prevent congenital syphilis in greater detail.

1. Prenatal Screening

Prenatal screening for syphilis is the first line of defense in preventing congenital syphilis. Regular testing for syphilis during pregnancy allows healthcare providers to identify and treat infected pregnant women early on. This crucial screening ensures that prompt treatment can be administered to prevent transmission to the unborn child.

2. Treatment of Infected Mothers

Timely and effective treatment of syphilis in pregnant women is vital. This involves the administration of antibiotics, typically penicillin, to eliminate the syphilis bacterium from the mother’s system. This treatment significantly reduces the risk of transmission to the baby. Ensuring that healthcare providers follow evidence-based treatment protocols is essential for success.

3. Follow-Up Testing

After initial treatment, continuous monitoring is essential to verify that the treatment has been effective in clearing the syphilis infection from both the mother and her child. This follow-up testing allows healthcare providers to intervene promptly if there are any signs of persistent infection. It is crucial to ensure that both the mother and her baby receive appropriate care.

4. Health Education and Awareness

Raising awareness about congenital syphilis among healthcare providers, pregnant women, and the general public is key. Many people may not fully understand the risks and consequences of syphilis during pregnancy. Educational programs and public health campaigns can inform women about the importance of prenatal care and syphilis testing during pregnancy.

5. Partner Notification and Testing

It’s essential to encourage and support partner notification and testing. Partners of pregnant women who test positive for syphilis should also be tested and treated if necessary to prevent reinfection. This practice is crucial to break the cycle of transmission.

6. Access to Healthcare Services

Ensuring that pregnant women have access to prenatal care and healthcare services is fundamental. Overcoming barriers such as economic, geographical, and cultural factors that may limit access to healthcare is vital in preventing congenital syphilis. This includes making syphilis testing and treatment services readily available.

7. Legislation and Policy

Strong legislation and policy support are needed to ensure that prenatal screening and treatment for syphilis are implemented effectively. Governments and healthcare systems must establish clear guidelines and regulations to protect pregnant women and their children from congenital syphilis.

8. Routine Testing for All Pregnant Women

Implementing a policy of universal syphilis testing for all pregnant women, regardless of risk factors, can further reduce the incidence of congenital syphilis. This approach leaves no room for missed cases and provides a safety net to protect all infants from this preventable disease

Treatment options for congenital syphilis

Treating congenital syphilis is a critical aspect of managing this condition, which can have severe consequences if left unaddressed. In this section, we will provide a comprehensive exploration of the various treatment options for congenital syphilis.

Penicillin: The Gold Standard Treatment

Penicillin remains the primary and most effective treatment for congenital syphilis. This potent antibiotic, which has been used for decades, is known for its ability to combat the causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum, effectively. Here’s a more detailed look at how penicillin is used in the treatment of congenital syphilis:

Intravenous Administration: Penicillin G is typically administered intravenously to infants diagnosed with congenital syphilis. Intravenous treatment allows for rapid and comprehensive distribution of the antibiotic throughout the body, targeting the syphilis bacterium in various organs and tissues.

Treatment Regimen: The specific penicillin treatment regimen depends on the infant’s age, the severity of the infection, and the presence of any complications. A healthcare provider will determine the appropriate dosage and duration of treatment, ensuring that it is tailored to the individual case.

Hospitalization: Many infants diagnosed with congenital syphilis require hospitalization to receive intravenous penicillin. This close medical supervision is crucial for ensuring the effectiveness of treatment and monitoring for potential adverse reactions.

Alternative Antibiotics: In cases where a patient may be allergic to penicillin, other antibiotics, such as ceftriaxone, may be considered as alternatives. However, penicillin is generally preferred due to its established efficacy.

Follow-Up and Monitoring

Effective treatment of congenital syphilis extends beyond the initial administration of antibiotics. Continuous follow-up and monitoring are essential components of the treatment process. Here’s why:

Response Assessment: Healthcare providers closely monitor the infant’s response to treatment, examining factors such as symptom resolution and laboratory test results. This assessment helps determine whether the initial treatment is successful or if further intervention is needed.

Serial Serologic Testing: Blood tests for syphilis-specific antibodies are conducted at regular intervals to confirm the elimination of the syphilis bacterium. This ongoing testing is essential to ensure the complete clearance of the infection.

Treatment Adjustment: Depending on the infant’s response, the treatment regimen may be adjusted to optimize its effectiveness. The healthcare provider will make any necessary changes to ensure the best possible outcome.

Collaboration with Pediatric Specialists

The treatment of congenital syphilis often involves a multidisciplinary approach, particularly when the infection has led to complications. Pediatric specialists, such as neonatologists and pediatric infectious disease specialists, may be consulted to provide expertise and ensure the infant’s overall health and development are carefully managed.

Challenges and Considerations

While penicillin is highly effective in treating congenital syphilis, it’s essential to consider some unique challenges and factors:

Timing is Crucial: The earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the prognosis. Delayed treatment can lead to more severe complications.

Neurosyphilis: In cases where the infection has affected the central nervous system, additional treatment may be required. This may involve longer courses of penicillin or other antibiotics.

Preventing Transmission: Preventive measures are taken to reduce the risk of transmitting syphilis from an infected mother to her child during subsequent pregnancies.

Screening of Close Contacts: In some cases, it may be advisable to screen and, if necessary, treat close contacts of infants diagnosed with congenital syphilis to prevent reinfection.

Long-term effects and prognosis of congenital syphilis

Understanding the long-term effects and prognosis of congenital syphilis is crucial in comprehending the full spectrum of this condition and highlighting the significance of early detection and intervention. In this section, we will explore the potential long-term consequences of congenital syphilis and the prognosis for affected infants.

Long-Term Effects

Congenital syphilis can have a wide range of long-term effects on infants who contract the disease from their infected mothers. The severity of these effects can vary depending on factors such as the stage of maternal syphilis, the timing of diagnosis, and the promptness of treatment. Let’s delve into these long-term effects:

1. Developmental Delays

One of the notable long-term effects is developmental delays. Congenital syphilis can impair a child’s physical and cognitive development. This includes delays in achieving developmental milestones like walking, talking, and other fundamental skills.

2. Organ Damage

Congenital syphilis can harm various organs, leading to long-term health issues. Affected organs may include the liver, spleen, and central nervous system. If left untreated, this damage can result in irreversible consequences.

3. Dental Abnormalities

Dental problems, such as Hutchinson’s teeth, which have a characteristic notched and peg-shaped appearance, can manifest in children with congenital syphilis. These dental abnormalities may require ongoing dental care and treatment.

4. Hearing Loss

Hearing loss can be a permanent long-term effect of congenital syphilis. It may vary in severity, ranging from mild to profound, and often necessitates long-term management, including hearing aids and speech therapy.

5. Ocular Abnormalities

Some infants with congenital syphilis can develop eye issues. These ocular abnormalities may result in visual impairments and, in some cases, can lead to partial or complete blindness.

6. Neurological Complications

In severe cases, congenital syphilis can cause neurological complications, a condition known as neurosyphilis. These complications can result in intellectual disabilities, seizures, and other lifelong neurological challenges.

7. Bone Deformities

Bone abnormalities caused by congenital syphilis can have a lasting impact on a child’s musculoskeletal system. This may require orthopedic interventions, surgery, or ongoing medical care.

Prognosis

The prognosis for infants with congenital syphilis is highly dependent on several critical factors, the most crucial of which is early diagnosis and treatment. The sooner congenital syphilis is detected, and appropriate medical care is administered, the more favorable the prognosis becomes. Let’s discuss the potential prognoses:

1. Early Diagnosis and Treatment

When congenital syphilis is diagnosed promptly and treated effectively with antibiotics, such as penicillin, infants have a significantly improved prognosis. Many infants can recover from the initial symptoms, and the long-term effects can be minimized or, in some cases, completely avoided.

2. Delayed Diagnosis and Treatment

In cases where congenital syphilis is not diagnosed until the later stages or if there is a delay in treatment, the prognosis may not be as favorable. The long-term effects are more likely to manifest and can have a lasting impact on the child’s health and development.

3. The Importance of Follow-Up

Regardless of the timing of diagnosis and treatment, follow-up care and monitoring are crucial to assess the effectiveness of treatment and manage any long-term effects. Regular medical assessments can help address complications as they arise.

4. The Role of Support and Resources

Families of infants with congenital syphilis can benefit from support groups and medical professionals. These resources can provide guidance on managing the long-term effects and ensuring the child’s well-being.

The long-term effects and prognosis of congenital syphilis underscore the critical importance of early detection, timely treatment, and diligent follow-up care. By focusing on these aspects, the medical community can greatly improve the outlook for infants affected by this preventable condition and enhance their quality of life.

Support and resources for individuals affected by congenital syphilis

Families affected by congenital syphilis may benefit from support groups, medical professionals, and public health resources. Seeking timely medical care and adhering to recommended treatments are essential for the best possible outcomes for both the infants and their families.

Conclusion

Congenital syphilis is a preventable yet serious health condition that continues to afflict newborns when not detected and treated promptly. Through prenatal screening, timely treatment, and meticulous monitoring, the incidence of congenital syphilis can be significantly reduced, ensuring the health and well-being of both mothers and their infants. Early diagnosis, treatment, and comprehensive care are critical to improving the prognosis for affected infants and preventing the serious consequences of this condition. Addressing congenital syphilis requires a multi-faceted approach involving prevention, education, and healthcare interventions.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What is congenital syphilis?
Answer: Congenital syphilis is a condition in which a child is born with syphilis, a sexually transmitted bacterial infection, due to transmission from an infected mother during pregnancy or childbirth.

2. How common is congenital syphilis?
Answer: The incidence of congenital syphilis varies by region and depends on factors like the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women. In areas with limited access to healthcare, it can be more common.

3. What causes congenital syphilis?
Answer: Congenital syphilis is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum, which is transmitted from an infected mother to her fetus during pregnancy or childbirth.

4. What are the symptoms of congenital syphilis in infants? Answer: Symptoms can include rash, fever, anemia, enlarged liver and spleen, and developmental delays. However, some infants may be asymptomatic.

5. How is congenital syphilis diagnosed?
Answer:
Diagnosis often involves blood tests to detect syphilis antibodies in both the mother and infant. Other tests, such as a lumbar puncture, may be performed to evaluate central nervous system involvement.

6. Can congenital syphilis be prevented?
Answer:
Yes, congenital syphilis can be prevented. Prenatal care is crucial, as early detection and treatment of syphilis in pregnant women can prevent transmission to the fetus. Penicillin is highly effective in treating syphilis.

7. What is the treatment for congenital syphilis?
Answer: The primary treatment for congenital syphilis is antibiotics, typically penicillin. The choice of treatment and duration depend on factors like the infant’s age and the severity of the disease.

8. What are the long-term effects of congenital syphilis? Answer: Long-term effects can include developmental delays, organ damage, dental abnormalities, hearing loss, ocular issues, neurological complications, and bone deformities. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical in minimizing these effects.

9. What is the prognosis for infants with congenital syphilis?
Answer:
The prognosis depends on factors like the timing of diagnosis and treatment. Early detection and effective treatment lead to a more favorable prognosis. Delayed treatment may result in more severe long-term effects.

10. Are there support and resources available for families affected by congenital syphilis?
Answer: Yes, various support groups, medical professionals, and organizations offer assistance to families dealing with congenital syphilis. They can provide guidance on managing the condition and connecting with essential resources.

Sources:

MSD Manuals www.msdmanuals.com/professional/pediatrics/infections-in-neonates/congenital-syphilis

Centers For Disease Control and Prevention www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/surveillancemanual/quick-reference-handbook/congenital-syphilis.html

Medically Reviewed by:

Name: Ezire Lilian Chinwe

Description: A highly motivated and licensed biomedical scientist with over 7 years of experience, dedicated to advancing healthcare through innovative research and analysis. Expertise includes genetics, microbiology, and immunology with a commitment to staying at the forefront of scientific advancements.

Link: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lilian-ezire-3ba4b2215/

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