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Zombie firm Phenomenon: Unprofitable Companies Stay in Business

Zombie firm Phenomenon: Unprofitable Companies Stay in Business
Zombie firm Phenomenon: Unprofitable Companies Stay in Business

How Unprofitable Companies Stay in Business: The Zombie Firms Phenomenon

In the world of business, it’s not uncommon for companies to face financial difficulties. Some may find themselves operating in the red, struggling to meet their financial obligations, and on the brink of bankruptcy. Surprisingly, these unprofitable companies, often referred to as “zombie firms,” manage to stay afloat for years, raising the question of how they manage to stay in business. In this article, we will delve into the phenomenon of zombie firms, their impact on the economy, and the reasons behind their persistence.

The Rise of Zombie Firms

Zombie firms are a growing problem, not just in the United States but globally. They are characterized by their inability to generate profits and consistently display negative sales growth. In the United States, approximately 10% of publicly listed companies can be classified as zombie firms, and this number has been on the rise over the years.

Defining Zombie Firms

Zombie firms are typically older companies that are heavily indebted, and they often fail to show any signs of growth or profitability. They are essentially the walking dead of the business world. These firms continue to exist, albeit unprofitably, due to cheap credit and financing options that allow them to sustain their operations.

The Consequences of Zombie Firms

The existence of zombie firms has significant implications for the broader economy. These firms compete with healthy, viable businesses for resources and capital. Their presence can stifle competition and divert resources away from potentially innovative and prosperous companies.

The Government’s Role

Governments and financial institutions sometimes intervene to support struggling businesses. This support, in the form of bailouts or subsidies, can inadvertently prolong the life of zombie firms. However, this approach may not be sustainable, as it keeps unviable businesses afloat and contributes to slower economic growth.

Economic Consequences

Zombie firms, especially when they accumulate a significant share of the market, can drag down economic growth. Their inability to contribute positively to the economy’s productivity and innovation can result in prolonged periods of slow growth, mirroring the situation seen in Japan during its “lost decade.”

Factors Contributing to Zombie Firms

Several factors contribute to the existence and persistence of zombie firms in various sectors of the economy.

Debt Dependency

Industries with high levels of debt, such as real estate and energy, are more susceptible to hosting zombie firms. High debt levels can limit a company’s ability to invest and innovate, ultimately leading to financial troubles.

Lack of Competition

Sectors with limited competition tend to have a higher prevalence of zombie firms. In these industries, a lack of competitive pressure can allow unprofitable businesses to persist without being driven out of the market.

Growth Companies

Interestingly, some zombie firms are found in industries with growth potential. These companies, however, may be under-leveraged, meaning they don’t have significant debt on their balance sheets. This is a key distinction from typical zombie firms, which are often heavily indebted.

The Current Scenario

In recent years, rising interest rates have put added pressure on zombie firms. As the cost of doing business increases, many of these companies find it challenging to sustain their operations. This has led to a surge in bankruptcies, as businesses that once relied on low borrowing costs now face higher interest rates.

Case in Point: Yellow

A notable example is the trucking giant Yellow, which filed for bankruptcy after years of financial struggle. Despite receiving a significant government bailout, the company couldn’t overcome its financial woes, leaving thousands of workers jobless.

The Path to Economic Health

Many economists argue that the bankruptcy of zombie firms is a necessary step toward a healthier economy. While it may be a painful transition, allowing these unprofitable businesses to fail can pave the way for more sustainable and innovative companies to thrive.

Challenges and Opportunities

The banking sector also plays a crucial role in this process. Banks may sometimes continue extending loans to struggling companies, hoping for a turnaround. However, this behavior can perpetuate the existence of zombie firms, as well as pose risks to the financial sector.

Lessons from Japan

Japan’s experience with zombie firms in the 1990s serves as a cautionary tale. Weak supervision and undercapitalized banks prolonged the existence of zombie firms, contributing to a lost decade of economic growth. The United States faces similar challenges, with banks carrying significant losses and an uncertain economic outlook.

Regulatory Oversight

The role of regulatory oversight becomes critical in ensuring that banks maintain their financial health and prevent the propagation of zombie firms. The Federal Reserve’s recent interest rate hikes aim to address the issue, albeit with potentially far-reaching consequences.

Future Outlook

The future of zombie firms in the United States remains uncertain. Industries like airlines and autos, historically reliant on high debt and government support, may face challenges in a changing economic landscape. The government’s ability to provide bailouts is limited, and the era of cheap money is coming to an end.


The persistence of unprofitable zombie firms in the business world raises complex questions about their impact on the economy and the best path forward. While government support during crises is essential, it’s crucial to strike a balance to avoid prolonging the existence of unviable businesses. The ongoing challenge is to ensure a healthy and innovative economic landscape.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

  1. What are zombie firms, and why do they exist?
    Zombie firms are unprofitable companies that continue to operate due to factors like cheap credit and lack of competition. They exist because of their ability to access financing even when they can’t generate profits.
  2. How do zombie firms affect the broader economy?  Zombie firms can stifle economic growth by diverting resources away from healthy, innovative businesses. They may lead to prolonged periods of slow economic growth.
  3. What role does the government play in supporting zombie firms?
     Governments may provide support to struggling businesses through bailouts and subsidies. While this support can be essential during crises, it must be carefully calibrated to avoid sustaining unviable businesses.
  4. Are there any parallels between the United States and Japan’s experience with zombie firms? Data:
    Both countries have faced challenges with zombie firms, and Japan’s experience in the 1990s serves as a cautionary tale. Weak supervision and financial instability contributed to a lost decade of economic growth in Japan.
  5. What is the outlook for the future of zombie firms in the United States?
    The future of zombie firms in the U.S. remains uncertain. Rising interest rates and changing economic conditions may lead to increased bankruptcies, forcing a reckoning for unprofitable businesses.
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Simeon Bala
An Information technology (IT) professional who is passionate about technology and building Inspiring the company’s people to love development, innovations, and client support through technology. With expertise in Quality/Process improvement and management, Risk Management. An outstanding customer service and management skills in resolving technical issues and educating end-users. An excellent team player making significant contributions to the team, and individual success, and mentoring. Background also includes experience with Virtualization, Cyber security and vulnerability assessment, Business intelligence, Search Engine Optimization, brand promotion, copywriting, strategic digital and social media marketing, computer networking, and software testing. Also keen about the financial, stock, and crypto market. With knowledge of technical analysis, value investing, and keep improving myself in all finance market spaces. Pioneer of the following platforms were I research and write on relevant topics. 1. https://publicopinion.org.ng 2. https://getdeals.com.ng 3. https://tradea.com.ng 4. https://9jaoncloud.com.ng Simeon Bala is an excellent problem solver with strong communication and interpersonal skills.


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