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Learn all about Mammogram

Learn all about Mammogram

Medically Reviewed by:

Name: Ezire Lilian Chinwe

Description: A highly motivated and licensed biomedical scientist with over 7 years of experience, dedicated to advancing healthcare through innovative research and analysis. Expertise includes genetics, microbiology, and immunology with a commitment to staying at the forefront of scientific advancements.

Link: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lilian-ezire-3ba4b2215/

Learn all about Mammogram

What Is a Mammogram?

Mammograms are the most effective diagnostics available to clinicians for detecting breast cancer in its earliest stages. A mammogram is an X-ray image of the breast taken by a radiologist or a diagnostics mammographer. A mammography is used by doctors ( Radiologists and medical Specialists) to check for early symptoms of breast cancer in women.

Regular mammograms are the most effective tests available to doctors for detecting breast cancer early, often up to three years before symptoms appear.

What is mammogram diagnostic?

It another way of describing a mammogram which is a breast X-ray used to detect abnormal breast changes including a lump, discomfort, nipple thickening or discharge, or a change in breast size or shape. A diagnostic mammography can also be used to assess abnormalities discovered during a screening mammogram.

Who invented mammogram

A methodology for screening mammography was initially developed in the late 1950s by Robert Egan at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, which combined low voltage with high current and single-emulsion films to produce the first method of screening mammography. He first reported his findings in a paper in 1959, and then in a book titled Mammography, which was released in 1964.

What is the procedure for a mammogram?

You will be asked to stand in front of a specialized X-ray machine for a brief period of time. Your breast will be placed on a plastic plate by a technologist during the procedure. Another plate will press down on your breast from above, pressing it forcefully. During the X-ray procedure, the breast will be flattened by the plates, which will keep it immobile.

There will be some strain on you. To create a side view of the breast, the techniques are done once more. A similar X-ray procedure will be performed on the opposite breast. Afterwards, you will be need to wait while the technologist examines the four X-rays to ensure that they do not need to be re-taken. Always remember that the technologist will not be able to tell you the outcome of your mammography. Because every woman’s breasts are unique, each woman’s mammography will appear slightly different from the next.

What does it feel like to have a mammogram?

For most women, getting a mammogram is an unpleasant experience. Some ladies find it to be excruciating. A mammography, on the other hand, takes only a few minutes and the unpleasantness is quickly forgotten. What you feel is determined by the ability of the mammographer, the size of your breasts, and the amount of pressure applied to them throughout the procedure.

If you are going to get or are currently experiencing your period, your breasts may be extra sensitive. The mammography will be read by a doctor who has received specialized training, known as a radiologist. He or she will examine the X-ray for any early indicators of breast cancer or other issues that may be present.

Getting a mammogram and how to prepare

• Avoid having your mammogram the week before or the day of your period if at all possible. If your breasts are sore or swollen, you should seek immediate medical attention.

• Instead of a dress, some ladies prefer to wear a top with a skirt or pants. For the mammography, you’ll have to take your clothes off up to your waist.

When will my mammography results be available?

The results are usually available within a few weeks. Your mammography is reviewed by a radiologist, who then informs you and your doctor of the results. If there is a problem, the mammography facility will contact you sooner.

If you go to a center with a seating radiologist, you it possible to get your mammogram results same day, Some centers can even tell you to come back the next day. So you need to confirm from the diagnostic center or hospital you are using.

What if my mammogram comes back normal?

Continue to obtain mammograms at the regular intervals in accordance with the guidelines. Breast exams are most effective when they can be compared to earlier exams. This enables the radiologist to compare them in order to look for changes in your breasts during the procedure.

What should I do if my mammogram is abnormal?

A mammography that is abnormal may not always indicate the presence of cancer. However, the doctor will need to perform additional scans, tests, or exams before he or she can be certain. You could possibly be referred to a surgeon or a breast specialist.

It does not necessarily imply that you have cancer or that you will require surgery. These doctors are professionals when it comes to identifying breast issues. Doctors will conduct follow-up testing to determine whether or not there is cancer in the breast.

Mammograms save lives in the following ways

You’ve probably heard it before, and you’ll probably hear it again: early identification of breast cancer through mammography can save lives when it comes to breast cancer prevention measures. Here’s why scheduling a mammogram is too vital.

• Beginning at the age of 40, your risk of breast cancer rises dramatically and continues to rise as you become older.

• Mammography has contributed to a decrease in breast cancer-related fatalities.

• Mammograms detect breast cancer on average 5 years before symptoms appear.

• Early detection of breast cancer means more treatment options and a better chance of long-term survival.

Mammogram and deodorant

Don’t use deodorant, perfume, or powder on the day of your mammography. These items may appear on an X-ray as small white spots. Before You Take Your Exam
Check in 10-15 minutes ahead of time. Wear comfortable clothes that you can readily remove, such as a separate top. Remove any deodorant, powder, or lotions from your underarms and breasts before the mammography, if you use them. mammography and deodorants don’t mix.

How many mammogram callbacks false positive

A callback is a term that we use to refer to a variety of situations. It does not necessarily imply that you have cancer. It just indicates that you should return because we require additional information “Dr. Cindy Lee expresses her views. “The need for further imaging (also known as a diagnostic mammography) is critical, but it doesn’t have to be a frightening encounter.

There is the possibility of false positive results when a mammography reveals cancer when there is none in the breast.

The more mammograms a woman has, the more likely she is to get a false positive result that necessitates more testing.

After one mammography, your chances of getting a false positive result range from 7 to 12 percent, depending on your age (younger women are more likely to get a false positive result). After ten annual mammograms, the chances of a false positive are roughly 50-60%.

Younger women and women with thick breasts are more likely to get a false positive result. (Because most women younger than 50 have thick breasts, these groups overlap.)

Fear and worry can arise from a false positive result. Some women may still be experiencing these emotions a year later.

Don’t be alarmed if you’re called back to confirm an abnormal result on your mammogram. It’s not uncommon to have falsely positive findings. The majority of women who are summoned do not have breast cancer.

Mammogram diagnostic bilateral vs Unilateral

Unilateral and bilateral diagnostic mammograms are the two types of diagnostic mammograms available. Diagnostic mammograms that are performed unilaterally evaluate only one breast, whereas bilateral mammography take images of both breasts.

Mammogram of breast cancer

A mammography can frequently locate or diagnose breast cancer early on, even before a lump is felt. It’s simplest to treat at this time.

Also, breast cancer mortality has been lowering as a result of early discovery, management, and postoperative treatment. Breast cancer screening with mammography is the preferred method.

Mammogram for dense breasts

A mammography determines the density of your breasts. When you receive the findings of your mammography, you may also be informed of the density of your breasts. Women who have thick breasts are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer.

A woman’s breasts are composed of three distinct types of tissue.

  • Breast tissue is held in place by fibrous tissue.
  • The glandular tissue, or the area of the breast that produces milk, is referred to as the lobes. Ducts are the tubes that transport milk to the nipple. Fibrous and glandular tissue are combined to form fibroglandular tissue.
  • Between the fibrous tissue, lobes, and ducts, fatty tissue covers the area. It determines the size and form of the breasts.

Breast density refers to the ratio of fibrous and glandular tissue to fatty tissue in a woman’s breasts as determined by a mammography.

Breast density is classified into one of four categories on a mammography report:

  • Breasts are almost entirely made of fat (about 10 percent of women).
  • The breasts include a few areas of thick tissue (about 40 percent of women).
  • Breasts are uniformly thick throughout (about 40 percent of women).
  • Breasts are incredibly thick (about 10 percent of women).

Women that fall into the first two categories have breasts that are low-density, non-dense, or fatty. Women who fall into the second two categories are said to have thick breasts. Around half of women over the age of 40 have thick breasts.

What Is the Importance of Breast Density?

Risk of Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is more likely in women who have thick breasts. The higher your risk, the more thick your breasts are. Scientists are unsure why this is the case.

Breast cancer patients with thick breasts are no more likely than those with non-dense (fatty) breasts to die from the disease.

With Mammograms.

Cancers can be hidden by dense tissue. When viewed on a mammogram, fibrous and glandular tissue appears white. The same can be said for a suspected tumor. Because it is difficult to distinguish between a tumor and dense breast tissue on a mammography, a small tumor may go undetected for a long period of time.

Who Has a Higher Chance of Having Dense Breasts?

Your breasts’ density can alter throughout time. In general, having thick breasts is more common if you re more younger, if you are you pregnant or nursing a child, If you’re on hormone replacement medication or if you have reduce your body weight.

What Should I Do If My Breasts Are Dense?

Consult your doctor about your individual risk of breast cancer. Breast cancer can be caused by a variety of factors, including dense breasts. Other considerations that your doctor would consider include your age and family history of cancer.

Different tests may be able to detect malignancies that a mammography misses. However, these tests are more prone to provide a false positive.

What is the recommended age for a mammogram?

  • Women between the ages of 40 and 44 should be given the option to begin annual breast cancer screening with mammograms (breast x-rays) if they so want, according to the American Cancer Society.
  • Women between the ages of 45 and 54 should have mammograms every year.
  • Women above the age of 55 should begin having mammograms every two years, however they can continue with yearly screening.
  • A woman’s screening should be continued for as long as she is in excellent health and is projected to live for at least another ten years or longer.

Are mammograms recommended for women under the age of 40?

Screening mammography for women under the age of 40 are not generally suggested in this age group. Women with genetic mutations, on the other hand, can begin screening as early as 25 years old, and in women with a family history of breast cancer, screening is frequently began 10 years before the first affected relative in the family is diagnosed. Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently advised to high-risk women in addition to mammography.

Mammogram for implants

Even if you have breast implants, you should still get your mammograms on a regular basis. It’s necessary to inform the technologist that you have implants before your mammography begins. It’s even better if you mention it when you schedule your mammography appointment. You can learn if the clinic has expertise performing mammograms on women who have breast implants this way.

Can breast implants hinder mammography detection of breast cancer?

Yes. Breast implants, whether saline or silicone, can distort mammography pictures, making mammograms less effective at detecting breast cancer.

Breast implants are most commonly put above the muscle (subglandular), and implants in this location may limit the capacity of the radiologist to interpret the mammography since not all of the breast tissue can be seen. Implants inserted beneath the muscle (subpectoral) are less likely to obstruct the radiologist’s interpretation of the mammography. Despite this, studies show that mammograms are a good technique to detect breast cancer in women who have breast implants.

Mammography vs thermography

While mammography (low-dose X-ray imaging of the breast) is currently the most effective primary breast cancer screening test, other screening methods are becoming more popular as well. Early stage breast cancer cannot be detected using thermography as a stand-alone screening or diagnostic tool.

Thermography is not considered to be a viable alternative to mammography at this time. Later investigations have discovered that it is not very sensitive when it comes to detecting breast cancer. As well as being inaccurate, it has a high proportion of false-positive results, which implies that it can sometimes “discover” malignant cells when none are present.

Furthermore, in women who have already been diagnosed with cancer, the test is inefficient at correlating these findings. In a study of more than 10,000 women conducted in 1990, researchers discovered that over 72 percent of individuals who had breast cancer had a normal thermogram result.

Mammography can also produce false-positive results, and it has been known to miss breast tumors in some cases. Nonetheless, it remains the most effective method for identifying breast cancer in its earliest stages.

Mammogram screening near me

Visit this page to see all our collated centers in Nigeria for Mammogram diagnostic investigations.

Read about Mammogram screening near me | Centers for mammogram Investigation

How much does a regular mammogram cost?

  • As of the time of the publication, the price least price of a Mammogram is 14, 000 naira and the highest price for mammogram is 20,000 naira. This price is for different diagnostic centers in Lagos and could be different in other part of the country.
  • Different Centers normally run promos at different events e.g. The Breast Cancer Month in October each year.
  • Some groups my get free mammogram examination with cost taken care of by the Government or an external body e.g. Lagos State government have being involved in doing free Mammogram examinations.
  • In USA, Every October, many facilities offer free or low-cost mammograms in honor of Breast Cancer Awareness Month. The following are some of the large nationwide facilities that provide this service: Clinics of Planned Parenthood and the YWCA (Encore Plus Program).
  • The typical cost in the United States is between $100 and $250.

Mammogram 3d (Tomosynthesis)

A 3D mammography (also known as breast tomosynthesis) is an imaging procedure that uses numerous breast X-rays to build a three-dimensional image of the breast. It is used to detect breast cancer.

A 3D mammography is used to screen for breast cancer in persons who are not showing any signs or symptoms of the disease. It can also be used to determine the causes of breast problems such as a breast tumor, discomfort, or nipple discharge.

Mammogram 3d cost

A 3D Mammogram Screening (Tomosynthesis) can cost anywhere from $99 to $810.

What is the difference between a regular mammogram and a 3D?

Both 2D and 3D mammograms are virtually identical in terms of positioning. The main difference is that instead of taking a single photo, the 3D mammography takes many pictures. The machine takes many photos as it glides around the arc of the breasts.

Mammogram icd 10 code

ICD-10 Code Description
Z12.31 Encounter for screening mammogram for malignant neoplasm of breast
Z80.3 Family history of malignant neoplasm of breast
Z85.3 Personal history of malignant neoplasm of breast

The word “malignant neoplasm” refers to a tumor that has been diagnosed as cancerous. Although a clinician may anticipate this diagnosis based on observation, a biopsy of the lesion or mass is usually required to determine if it is malignant or benign in nature (not cancerous)

Z12. 31 (Encounter for screening mammogram for malignant neoplasm of the breast) is used to report screening mammograms, whereas Z12. 39 (Encounter for other screening for malignant neoplasm of the breast) is used to report screening studies for breast cancer not covered by mammograms.

Cpt code for Screening mammogram

77067 Screening mammography, bilateral (2-view study of each breast), including computer-aided detection (CAD) when performed

Is Meant For screening mammography

77065 Diagnostic mammography, including computer-aided detection (CAD) when performed; unilateral
77066 Diagnostic mammography, including computer-aided detection (CAD) when performed; bilateral

Is meant for diagnostic mammography

Who reads mammogram results

Mammograms and other screening and diagnostic images are interpreted by radiologists. Radiologists are doctors who have completed a four-year residency in radiology after continuing their studies. A radiologist may serve as a consultant to your physician or as the principal physician in the treatment of an illness.

Mammogram research

The Mayo Mammography Health Study at Mayo Clinic is a breast cancer research study whose purpose is to uncover features on mammograms that can be used to help diagnose people at high risk of breast cancer. The study is being conducted by the Mayo Clinic and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. The findings of the mammography study may eventually lead to the development of novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

Research team conducted the following as part of the Mayo Mammography Health Study to Examines mammography pictures in search of information that will assist in determining a woman’s future risk of breast cancer, learning more about early identification of breast cancer, breast cancer risk, and response to therapy as a result of this study, which is ongoing.

For Breast Cancer supporting organizations around the world check out this article here


Medically Reviewed by:

Name: Ezire Lilian Chinwe

Description: A highly motivated and licensed biomedical scientist with over 7 years of experience, dedicated to advancing healthcare through innovative research and analysis. Expertise includes genetics, microbiology, and immunology with a commitment to staying at the forefront of scientific advancements.

Link: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lilian-ezire-3ba4b2215/

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