Medically Reviewed by:

Name: Ezire Lilian Chinwe

Description: A highly motivated and licensed biomedical scientist with over 7 years of experience, dedicated to advancing healthcare through innovative research and analysis. Expertise includes genetics, microbiology, and immunology with a commitment to staying at the forefront of scientific advancements.

Link: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lilian-ezire-3ba4b2215/


Bed bugs can have a significant impact on a person’s health and quality of life if they are present in their house. It is consequently critical to be able to recognize their existence early in order to avoid an invasion and protect people’s health. But how are you going to get there? This is the subject of this article.


A bedbug, scientifically known as Cimex Lectularius, is a parasite that may be detected by humans because of the heat emitted by their bodies and the carbon dioxide they exhale. This small bug takes advantage of our sleeping state to bite us on a regular basis. Bed bugs, in contrast to lice and other parasites, do not live on or in humans.

The insects, on the other hand, sting and suck the blood under the skin for several minutes before disappearing into hiding to digest it. Bed bugs transmit a small amount of saliva under the skin of their hosts by biting them. Anesthetic and anticoagulant substances in their saliva make it easier to take blood from them.

The bed bug, contrary to popular perception, does not possess wings. As a result, they are unable to fly or jump high. They do, however, move fast across floors and walls, thanks to the ventilation system or the electrical distribution network. The majority of the time, they travel from one location to another using various objects such as bags.


Even with the naked eye, bedbugs can be seen. To identify bed bugs color, When they are saturated with blood, they turn a variety of colors, ranging from crimson to dark brown in color. To know bed bugs actual size, they are oval in shape and range in size from 4 to 7 millimeters. It is estimated that they have a lifespan of 5 to 6 months because they move at the speed of an ant. Please keep in mind that when they are in a dormant stage, they may survive for around one year without feeding.

When it comes to their eggs, keep in mind that they are whitish in color and are only the size of a pinhead in size. They are grouped in groups and placed strategically throughout the house. They hatch after a maximum of 14 days from the time they are deposited.

Bed bugs are more active at night, according to research. They prefer to hide in dark and difficult places. Some clues, on the other hand, make it simple to determine whether or not they are present. The presence of black spots on the box spring, linens, or mattress is an indication that never lies. Bites on the skin are another sign that bedbugs have taken up residence in the area.


When luggage, furniture, and bedding are moved in, they may sneak into a new home. People should be cautious when buying used furniture, and they should never buy old mattresses. Bedbugs or their droppings should be detectable with a careful visual inspection.

Bedbugs can be found in even abandoned and relatively clean dwellings. They can go for more than two months without eating even up to a year. They may even be able to go from apartment to apartment by using hollows and gaps in the walls, as well as the tubes that wires and pipes pass through.


1st step: Identify all of the affected places.

If you have bedbugs, you want to catch them as soon as possible before they begin to multiply. It is far easier—and less expensive—to treat a minor infestation than it is to handle a large infestation. Smaller infestations, on the other hand, may be tougher to detect.

You can either search for bedbugs on your own or engage an expert to do an inspection. Some inspectors use specially trained canines to track down bedbugs by scent, which they call “scent detection.”

It is possible for bedbugs to fit into small spaces because of their thin, narrow bodies. This includes mattress and couch seams as well as the folds of draperies.

Look for them in areas like these as well:

  • Close to the mattress and box spring tags
  • In the bed frame and headboard cracks
  • In the floorboards
  • Between the cushions of the couch
  • In the joints of furniture
  • Electrical outlets on the interior
  • Under the strewn-up wallpaper
  • Beneath the paintings and posters that adorn the walls
  • In the seam between the wallpaper and the ceiling.

Examine all of these places with a flashlight and magnifying glass.

2nd Step: Keep the infestation under control.

Once you have determined that you have bedbugs, you must keep them contained until you can eliminate them. Using your vacuum to trap bedbugs is a quick and simple method of catching bedbugs. Vacuum any probable hiding areas with the vacuum cleaner.

This includes Bed, dresser, rugs, and electronic equipment (like TVs).
Seal up the vacuumed contents in a plastic bag and toss it in the trash after vacuuming. Afterwards, completely degrease the vacuum cleaner.

Keep all of your linens and affected clothing sealed in plastic bags until you have the opportunity to wash them. Then, in the washer and dryer, adjust the temperature to the highest feasible level. If you are unable to wash an item, place it in the dryer for 30 minutes on the highest heat setting possible.

Any items that cannot be cleaned in the washer and dryer should be placed in a wrap plastic bag. If at all possible, keep it for a few months to ensure that all of the bugs have died. If you are unable to clean furniture, it should be discarded.

3rd Step: Get ready to treat bedbugs.

Do some due diligence before you begin treating your home to increase your chances of success. Ensure that all of your linens, carpets, draperies, clothing, and other hiding places have been cleaned or discarded (as stated in 2nd step).

Next, eliminate any potential bedbug hideouts. Pick up any books, magazines, clothes, or other items that may be laying around on your floor or under your bed. Get rid of everything you can. If you transport objects from an infested room to a clean one, the bugs may spread.

Any open spaces should be sealed. Glue down any loose wallpaper that has come free. Fill up cracks in furniture and baseboards with caulk. Tape electrical outlets that aren’t in use. Finally, to prevent bedbugs from climbing on your bed, move it at least 6 inches away from the wall.

4th Step: Killing the bedbugs

Methods of cleaning at home

You can try to get rid of bedbugs without using insecticides first. High heat, 115°F (46°C), or strong cold, 32°F (less than 0°C), are both effective in killing these pests.

These approaches can be used to treat bed bugs in the following ways:

  • 30 minutes in hot water for bedding and clothes. Then, for 30 minutes, dry them on the maximum heat setting.
  • Use a steamer to kill bed bugs in beds, couches, and other hiding spots.
    Infested goods should be placed in black bags and left outside on a hot day (above 95 degrees) or in a closed car. It can take two to five months to destroy sealed-up bugs in lower temperatures.
  • Place bedbug-infested bags in the freezer at 0°F (-17°C). Check the temperature with a thermometer. Allow at least four days for them to settle in.

Make the location hostile for bedbugs’ friends once you’ve cleaned all visible bed bugs. Cover your mattress and box spring with bedbug-proof coverings. These coverings should be fully zipped. Bugs trapped within will perish, and new bugs will be unable to enter.

If these measures do not completely eliminate the bugs, you may need to resort to using a pesticide, insecticide or disinfectants like Izal.

Chemical and non-chemical therapies are available.

Insecticides can help you get rid of bed bugs in your home. Look for EPA-registered (USA) and SON ( Standard Organization of Nigeria) products that are particularly labeled for “bedbugs.”

You can use a variety of insecticides, including the following:

  • The most frequent chemicals used to kill bedbugs are pyrethrins and pyrethroids. Despite this, some bedbugs have developed resistance to them.
  • Despite this, some bedbugs have developed resistance to them.
    Chlorfenapyr and other pyrroles kill bedbugs by damaging their cells.
  • Nicotine analogs known as neonicotinoids are synthetic nicotine analogs. They harm the neurological systems of the insects. This sort of insecticide is effective against bedbugs that have developed resistance to other pesticides.
  • Dessicants are chemicals that eat away at the bugs’ protective outer layer. The bugs would dry out and perish if they didn’t have this coating. Dessicants such as silica aerogel (Tri-Die and CimeXa) and diatomaceous earth are two examples.
    Dessicants have the advantage of not being resistant to bedbugs, but they act slowly. It can take a few months for these solutions to kill all of the bugs.
  • Bedbugs are killed by foggers or insect bombs, but they can’t reach into the cracks and holes where they hide. If used incorrectly, they can potentially be hazardous to humans. Pay close attention to the label. Before you set off a fogger, get out of the room.
  • Plant-based insecticides such as EcoRaider and Bed Bug Patrol are less hazardous than chemical pesticides and are effective against bedbugs.
  • In Nigeria, Izal has being used to treat bed bugs.
  • ActiveO Bedbug And Insect Killer With Diatomaceous Earth 300g can be used

  Seek professional Services for bed bugs treatment

On the other hand If you notice evidence of bedbugs in your home, you should act fast to avoid a large infestation. To do so, contact a bedbug-specific business to rapidly intervene in your house and provide you with excellent pest management.


In conclusion, early detection and prompt treatment are crucial in dealing with bed bugs. Recognizing the signs, such as bites on the skin and black spots on bedding, is essential. Once identified, keeping the infestation under control through regular cleaning and preparing for treatment is necessary. Home methods like heat treatment, steaming, and freezing can be effective, along with chemical or non-chemical options.

Professional help may be needed for severe infestations. Prevention, including regular inspections, cleanliness, and cautiousness with used items, is key. Creating an inhospitable environment for bed bugs and using protective coverings can aid in prevention. By adopting a proactive approach, individuals can effectively manage and eliminate bed bug issues, safeguarding both their homes and well-being.


United States Environmental Protection Agency www.epa.gov/bedbugs/how-find-bed-bugs

www.webmd.com www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/bedbugs-infestation

www.healthline.com www.healthline.com/health/healthy-home-guide/how-to-get-rid-of-bed-bugs

Medically Reviewed by:

Name: Ezire Lilian Chinwe

Description: A highly motivated and licensed biomedical scientist with over 7 years of experience, dedicated to advancing healthcare through innovative research and analysis. Expertise includes genetics, microbiology, and immunology with a commitment to staying at the forefront of scientific advancements.

Link: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lilian-ezire-3ba4b2215/

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